Defect Management

What is a defect, an error, a fault and a failure?
In the application which is created. A programmer while designing and building the software can make mistakes or error. There mistakes or errors means that there are flaws in the software. There are called defects.

Error-> Error is a mistake due to human action leading to incorrect result.

Fault-> A human error cause a deviation from the expected behavior. This is a fault.

Failure-> It is a deviation of software from its expected delivery or service.

Difference between Bug, Error, Defect and Issue?
1.Bug-> A software bug is an error,flaw,mistake,failure or fault in a program that prevents it from behaving as intended. Most bugs arise from mistake and errors made by people in either a program’s
Source code or its design, and a few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code.

2.Error-> The mistake made by developer in coding.

3.Defect-> Defect is something which is in the requirement document and it is not implemented or it is implemented in a wrong way.

4.Issue-> Issue is something which is not all above, some issues are there like site is slow, session related problems, security problems etc.

What are the contents of a defect report?



Defect ID

A unique identification assigned to each defect which helps in tracking.

Project name

Name of the project.

Module name

Name of the module where defects is found.


Phase or level of testing when defect is found.

Type of Defect



Indicates the impact of defect.


Indicates the urgency of fixing the defects.


One line statement mentioning defect description.


Detailed information of defect with steps to reproduce, Screenshots, more information on what is happening and what should happen.


Can be New,Open,Assigned,Duplicate,Deferred,Fixed,Re-opened or Closed.

Explain defects life cycle?




The reported defect has a status “New”.


Assigned to a resource(typically a developer).


Developer starts work on the defect.


Defect is linked to another defect which is essentially the same.


Defect is postponed to future release.


Defect is fixed by developer.


Defects is validated through retesting by tester and closed.

Advantage of Defect Tracking->
1. Information sharing.
2. Resource allocation for defect fix.
3. Prioritization of defects.
4. Understanding the stability of an application.
5. Judge release readiness of application.

Defect Tracking Tools->
1. Quality Centre.
2. Rational Clean Quest
3. Bugzilla
4. Mantis

Features of defect tracking tools->
1. Creating projects, project roles, project users.
2. Adding defects.
3. Allow status changes of defect by authorized personnel.
4. Email communication on status change.
5. Various summary report on defect analysis.


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